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Graph showing the relationship between the percentage ratio and the deflection and included angle applied to deviations and redirect pulleys

Angular Vector Forces

Angular vector forces occur when ropes are passed through a deviation or a directional pulley. Dependent on the angle created, this can have a multiplying

Diagram of a basic 6:1 pulley system
Pulley Systems

The 6:1 Pulley System

As we continue to apply more pulleys to the system then the mechanical advantage ratio increases. In this system some of the pulleys that have

Diagram of a basic 5:1 pulley system
Pulley Systems

The 5:1 Pulley System

With this 5:1 pulley system the user is required to apply an effort of only 20kg to lift the 100kg load. Notice that when the

Diagram of a basic 4:1 pulley system
Pulley Systems

The 4:1 Pulley System

This pulley system provides a 4:1 mechanical advantage. The user is required to apply a force of 25kg to raise this 100kg load, for every

Basic 3:1 Pulley System
Pulley Systems

The 3:1 Pulley System

Here we have a 3:1 mechanical advantage. First one end of the rope is attached directly to the load, this is then passed around an

Diagram showing a 1:1 Redirect Pulley System
Pulley Systems

The 1:1 Redirect Pulley System

In the illustration to the right we have a rope attached to a load weighing 100kg. The rope has been passed through a pulley which

Diagram showing a pulley system with a 2:1 mechanical advantage

Pulley Systems

Pulley systems are used to provide us with a mechanical advantage, where the amount of input effort is multiplied to exert greater forces on a

Picture showing some common knot terminology and the parts of a rope

Knot Terminology

Knot tying has several commonly used terms. The ancient Latin word for knotting is ‘nodology’, the Greek referred to this art as ‘kompology’. These references

Chart showing fall factors with fall factor 2, fall factor 1 and fall factor 0. The diagram displays the relationship between a climbers position prior to a fall in relation to a fixed anchor point with a set length of dynamic rope

Fall Factors

A fall factor is a simple representation of the severity of a fall. It can be used to evaluate the potential loadings exerted on the

Diagram of a basic 2 to 1 pulley system
Pulley Systems

The 2:1 Pulley System

If we take a 1:1 system and turn it upside down it will result in a 2:1 mechanical advantage. Instead of the pulley being attached

Diagram showing vector force chart and anchor loadings for several angles in rigging

Vector Forces

Vector forces become apparent whenever there is an internal angle greater than 0° between two or more rigging components or anchorage points. For ease of